中国、中国、中国

劳动节长周末。标志着夏天的结束。阳光真好,在哪里享用都正好。

长周末最后一天才是所谓的“劳动节” (Labor Day)。劳动节的下午,坐在午后阳光里看《NHK:激流中国》第一集:富人和农民工。看得掉眼泪。七岁的孩子,在教室里写“我的理想”会写得全班都趴在桌上哭。因为整个学校的孩子都一年没见父母了。父母在大城市打工挣钱供他们上学就医。所有孩子的理想都是上大学然后爸爸妈妈就再也不用出去打工。。。

接下来看纽约时报上周的报道:《中国的污染已到极限》中文翻译(部分)英文原文

一些据说是政府不许发表的数据:

Only 1 percent of the country’s 560 million city dwellers breathe air
considered safe by the European Union. One major pollutant contributing
to China’s bad air is particulate matter, which includes concentrations
of fine dust, soot and aerosol particles less than 10 microns in
diameter (known as PM 10).

The
level of such particulates is measured in micrograms per cubic meter of
air. The European Union stipulates that any reading above 40 micrograms
is unsafe. The United States allows 50. In 2006, Beijing’s average PM
10 level was 141, according to the Chinese National Bureau of
Statistics.

中国5.6亿城市人口中,只有百分之一每天呼吸的空气符合欧盟的安全标准。测量空气安全度的一个指标是一个
叫 PM 10的数据,它代表一立方米空气里含有小于十微米的灰尘,有害颗粒等异物。欧盟规定 PM 10超过 40
微克就属于不安全。在美国,限度是 50. 据中国国家测量居数据显示,2006年北京的平均 PM 10 读数为 141。

An
internal, unpublicized report by the Chinese Academy of Environmental
Planning in 2003 estimated that 300,000 people die each year from
ambient air pollution, mostly of heart disease and lung cancer. An
additional 110,000 deaths could be attributed to indoor air pollution
caused by poorly ventilated coal and wood stoves or toxic fumes from
shoddy construction materials, said a person involved in that study.

2003年,国家环境保护总局环境规划院有一份没有公开过的内部文件统计表明中国每年有三十万人死于空气污染,大多表现于心脏病或者肺癌。另外有十一万人死于室内空气中毒,来源于没有良好通风的煤炉或者烧木材的炉子,以及有毒的建筑材料。

The
ravenous appetite for fossil fuels traces partly to an economic
stimulus program in 1997. The leadership, worried that China’s economy
would fall into a steep recession as its East Asian neighbors had,
provided generous state financing and tax incentives to support
industrialization on a grand scale.

今天中国对原油能源的疯狂消耗部分来自中国1997年开始施行的刺激经济增长的政策。政府担心中国会重蹈东亚四小龙的后尘,出现大规模的经济萧条。所以政府推出了一系列鼓励重工业发展的财政和税务优待。

It
worked well, possibly too well. In 1996, China and the United States
each accounted for 13 percent of global steel production. By 2005, the
United States share had dropped to 8 percent, while China’s share had
risen to 35 percent, according to a study by Daniel H. Rosen and Trevor
Houser of China Strategic Advisory, a group that analyzes the Chinese
economy.

这些政策非常有效,可能太有效了一点。根据Daniel H. Rosen 和 Trevor Houser
中国策略资讯团的一个研究显示,1996年,中国和美国各自生产全世界钢材的百分之十三。到2005年,美国的钢铁产量减少为百分之八,而中国却高速增长
到了百分之三十五。

Similarly,
China now makes half of the world’s cement and flat glass, and about a
third of its aluminum. In 2006, China overtook Japan as the
second-largest producer of cars and trucks after the United States.

同时,全世界半数的水泥和玻璃板,三分之一的铝都产自中国。2006年开始,中国超过了日本,成为世界第二大汽车和卡车的生产地,仅次于美国。

Its
energy needs are compounded because even some of its newest heavy
industry plants do not operate as efficiently, or control pollution as
effectively, as factories in other parts of the world, a recent World
Bank report said.

中国的能源消耗因此加倍。世界银行最近的一个报告说在中国,就连全部重新建起的最新的重工业区运转起来都不能像世界其他地方的工厂一样高效,也无法有效的控制污染。

Chinese
steel makers, on average, use one-fifth more energy per ton than the
international average. Cement manufacturers need 45 percent more power,
and ethylene producers need 70 percent more than producers elsewhere,
the World Bank says.

同一份世界银行报告还说:中国的钢铁厂,平均来说,每制造一顿钢铁,要比国际平均钢铁厂多消耗多五分之一的能源。 水泥厂需要超出百分之四十五的电力,乙烯厂需要比别处多百分之七十的能量。

数据还有很多,就不一一翻译了。大意就是说中国的重工业之所以比别处更浪费能源,因为建这些厂的人不愿多花
钱多花时间来建一个高效,能够把污染降到最低的厂。完全是急功近利。结果就是中国的污染越来越厉害,能源浪费越来越厉害,环境越来越糟。而且政府并没有太
大的动力来改变这个恶性循环。只要看到钱滚滚的流进来,根本是六亲不认。谁还管几十年后的后代生活在什么样的环境里呢?

因为中国经济发展的如此之快,这个恶性循环的破坏力就更加的强大。很有些大跃进的味道。带了现代的色彩而已。

上一次大跃进的结局是三年自然灾害。大家都一起饿肚子。

这一次呢?

One thought on “中国、中国、中国

  1. “因为建这些厂的人不愿多花钱多花时间来建一个高效,能够把污染降到最低的厂。” A large percent of those people are actually Multinational companies from US, Japan and Europe,etc. Ironically, they moved their plants to the low cost China where the emission regulations are not enforced or even non-existant, plus the low labor cost, to cut their costs and make more profits. China, now becomes a net importer of almost all types of raw materials to produce goods to be shipped to all over the world. Most of the finished products are outside China but the pollution and emissions will stay in China. The poor Chinese still have very low salary for processing those goods, but a win-win situation for the multinationals.

    Jean的回复:
    As stated in the NYT article, if the Chinese government (being the most efficient in the world since it authoritarian) wants to tackle the pollution problem, it could. Why doesn’t it do it? Because they don’t consider it vital enough. It is easy to blame it on the multinational. But the land and people belong to China, why doesn’t the government do something about it? Why is ” the emission regulations are not enforced or even non-existant” in China? If the government can pass a law to give financing and tax incentive to build heavy industry, why can’t it also pass a law to protect its land and people?!

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